Horton Plains is an eerie, starkly beautiful highland plateau popular with walkers that includes the fabled viewpoint of World’s End.It consists of ecosystems such as Montane evergreen forests, grasslands, marshy lands and aquatic ecosystem. At an altitude of 2,100 meters above sea level, Horton Plains spreads across over 3,169 hectares of the highest tableland of the island. In view of the large number of endemic flora and fauna species, Horton Plains was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site on 30th July 2010.
The great plains of the Central Highlands of Sri Lanka was discovered by the planter Thomas Farr in the early 19th century. In 1834 it was named Horton Plains in honor of then Governor of Ceylon (1831-1837) Sir Robert Wilmot Horton. In the year 1969, Horton Plains was declared a nature reserve.In 1988, the reserve was elevated to the status of a National Park.Large mammals could seldom be seen at Horton Plains. Samber is common sight at dusk and in the early morning hours. Mammals which still occur in reasonable numbers include Kelaart’s long clawed shrew Feroculus feroculus slender loris loris tardigradus endemic to the montane toque macaque Macaca sinica , purple faced langur Presbutis entellus, rusty-spotted cat felis rubigimosus and etcHorton Plains National park harbors 12 species of endemic birds the following birds are recorded only for Horton Plains. Sri Lanka blue magpie Cissa ornate , dusky blur flycatcher Eumyias sordisa , Sri Lanka white – eye Zosterops ceulonensis and Sri Lanka wood pigeon columba torringtonii .
There are various species of harriers and buzzards. This park is a paradise for butterflies too. Among reptiles are Snake Aspidurabrachyorrhos and the wide spread agamid Calotes nigrilabris . The only fish is the introduced rainbow trout Salmo gardneri . The distribution of the endemic fresh water shrimp Caridina singhalensis is believed to be confined to a 10k, stretch of river within the park.